hall effect experiment manual

133 0 obj <> endobj 2 0 obj (6) 0000006505 00000 n The Hall effect in p- or Il-Germanium Hall-effect-module Hall-effect p.Ge carrier board Hall-effect n-Ge carrier board Power supply O- 12 VDC/6 V.12 VAC coil. 4, with a magnetic field H in the z direction perpendicular to contacts 1, 2 and 3, 4. HALL EFFECT AND RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN DOPED GAAS 1 Experiment 14 Hall Effect and Resistivity Measurements in Doped GaAs Note: This laboratory manual is based on a manual for a very similiar experiment from the Physics 111 Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at UC Berkeley (see references). The Hall effect is a galvanomagnetic**effect, which was observed for the first time by E. H. Hall in 1880. This part describes the Hall Effect apparatus, as well as the procedures for computer control and data collection. Please use properly labelled figures and fundamental equations. The Hall effect basic apparatus provides con-tacts and power supply for the circuit boards with a germanium crystal (1008522, 1009810 and 1009760), also holding them in place in ex-periments measuring the Hall effect and how it depends on temperature, magnetic field or sam-ple current, as well as experiments on electrical 0000004763 00000 n 0000003370 00000 n I recently performed this experiment in the Solid States Lab during the II semester for M.Sc Physics course at University of Delhi. V�����/wۊ��~qQ��p��b B���W��$�s�������j��S\n�}����W�V�����i�P��J jW�>+)��C�{�?%��g���d�8�������*,ov��Hd������,�eL�������� N���j`%MW\����I��ЈG�l� �,;��w�ʵ�)"?�&�W�B�C_��q)��Vs�����S%�� �v��*�HO>�3�����ў�j�x�vS��ZĚ���Y=�:�ڂO�$ɮ���V��a�=}C��qx�j�~�lBɳgk���p������,Y�.AOZow�{Һ/Do쳖�?�=i��D|E&�'>�9���)Xz��F5kx%r �"��t���@�KOk��v��~�jB���`���-U��n�|X���?_��0{��"�0]�_٬8�5����hM.m\. Experiments in Mod-ern Physics, pp. (4) Thus, from equations (1), (3) and (4) we obtain V H = − µ 1 nq ¶ I xB z t. (5) The term in parenthesis is known as the Hall coefficient: R H = 1 nq. Describe the hall effect experiment and explain how it can be used to measure mobility and carrier concentration in semiconductors. <]>> 155 0 obj <>stream The Hall Effect is an important experimental method of investigation to determine the microscopic parameters of the charge transport in metals or doped semiconductors. 0000001649 00000 n A Hall effect switch will turn on in the presence of south magnetic field on its face or north magnetic field on the opposite side. h�|V�r�6��+��HߏN�3v��ig2�]�]@D�% ����_�^��(&�xaH��s��ï���\�-�(� e~>��U�,�!��P�+��}�*�ՖV �/�G��4��pXG,�De�x��Y�}^o�y�в�X�^�H���+rw�]E~ The idea of Hall effect Electron velocity vd is taken to vary linearly with the field Ex: vd =µEx which is only true under ohmic condition. Hall Effect is a technique of the measurement of the voltage that is transverse. Students will measure Hall coefficient and carrier charge concentration in a given semiconductor crystal which will help them to understand important concepts in … The physical mechanism of the Hall effect is discussed in Appendix I. 3.Last day of the experiment please ll out the Experiment Evaluation Suggested Reading: 1.Melissinos, Adrian. 600 turns Iron core, U-shaped, laminated Pole pieces, plane Hall probe, tangential Tripod base 'PASS" Support rod "PASS". A voltage appears across the sample that is due to an electric field that is at right angles to both the current and the applied magnetic field. To investigate the Hall Effect in this experiment a rectangular strip of n-doped semiconductor is placed in … 0000002967 00000 n 80-98. The Hall Voltage and probe current can be read on the same digital panel meter through the selector switch. Sign in to view the content . � b��V In general, we ask our students to find the Hall Voltage and Hall Coefficient. 2.A short description of the Hall E ect. 0000003934 00000 n xref %%EOF ?o�9pH�4�����Pqހi�l$� vu_&hX� 6)�̈́�Lk�n�Ek2�ޖ�-�a��o� _O��}�1`�b���4�����,�V��k�8�=l��?�W��'��i�c)[,|�U����\����1����M{hz:��R7��j�_u>�'�Z}Yl��� Only an authenticated user can view this page. 0000016434 00000 n If a current passes through a conducting material along the X direction and there is a magnetic field in the Y direction then a voltage difference VHappears along … �B�vU��3���ݡ���x�]Еvg�괙? Theory . This is the famous Quantum Hall Effect4. 0000000756 00000 n The Hall Effect experiment is explained very briefly (I just tried to make it brief). Feedback . It will turn off if the north pole is applied to the face or the power is turned off. Reference . Academic Press (1966). Fig. The Hall Effect experiment (conducted by Edwin Hall in 1879) determines the sign of the charge carriers in current flow. A Hall effect latch works like a switch, but will stay on when the magnet is removed. 0000001843 00000 n The Hall Effect When an electric charge q moves with velocity v in a magnetic field B the charge experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion such that X-1 Thus, in a slab of metal carrying an electric current Ix (Fig. stream Hall Effect . Procedure . startxref "Proof of the Van Der Pauw Theorem" Van Der Pauw Theorem 4. 0000001430 00000 n 0000004428 00000 n A four lead cable is attached so that the necessary electrical circuit can be used to detect the Hall voltage. The set-up consists of an electronic digital millivoltmeter and a constant current power supply. A current can be thought of as a negative charge moving in one direction (Figure 1) or as a positive charge moving in the opposite direction (Figure 2). Paper deals with hall effect sensors used for position measurement. X-1) the current density is jx and if the current carriers have charge q 2.1 Apparatus & Equipment List. 0 Student Manual: This experiment introduces students to the Hall Effect which is a fundamental principle of magnetic field sensing. In solid state physics, Hall effect is an important tool to characterize the materials especially semiconductors. �,.�� 'R0�yd��4_s�!��@�N,��YxH%���Jp��A%f��n`���Pce'��v�ld�* ��eq l����Ɔ�d?�R �� h�&�/@Kϙ,;) Figure 2: Hall Probe Detail Equipment. Hall Effect Set-up (Digital), DHE-21 It is a high performance instrument of outstanding flexibility. During this laboratory, you will use a Hall probe to study the magnetic field distributions produced by both a Helmholtz coil and a solenoid. The latter technique utilizing the Hall effect has the advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation. It directly determines both the sign and density of charge carriers in a given sample. �l�)%_�دwkR�iM�Vݚ�����\uM�n��lA��ũ�\a�Y�7�z�����xXO Hall Effect Experiment – [LAB MANUAL] Feb 1, 2017. Consider a rectangular conductor of thickness t kept in XY plane. The Hall Effect experiment For this purpose, the knowledge of the … Read more Hall Effect Experiment : How to observe Hall Voltage in the Physics Lab << /Length 4 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Consider a simple crystal mounted as in the Fig. If the H50/H5000 is If the H50/H5000 is connected to that port and powered on it will respond with a device name and version number. %��������� 0000019801 00000 n ��;��_����v���#��F�^�`L���W��W��+֦����L����Cw�i{��M%,����u������w�WT0˪��Y�网����Y��d\�d�;>_�M �G�|���/|���W>��7z�˺׮N�����.\��n�����{��\��s�ꂾ�-�?���݅�l��_��iy��O������]0氐�������3۟��e������Լ��3������W�?��������O��zF'�8��#\JZ����l�W^_Q�F�L���tWR���R�����]��'���9\Su�,��7_z��T���7e�(G{������c��:gM:�Rf��9��)�ϲ��+|`AE����[��D�s���~�,n�?�Y�����Y�ɿ�g�z�g�����?v���e��Y��e��I���VW��8������vl�\^������8x:�'��U�|�3�W��o�>X���ZA(�O�A��N���_[L�;���Z%�\�m_ positive. Alpha water-cooled magnet and power supply (Turn on water before turning on power supply. A Hall-effect sensor (or simply Hall sensor) is a device to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field.Its output voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength through it.. Hall-effect sensors are used for proximity sensing, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications.. i��4�w)^��=��?�d:���Hc|`p������F��NcXרr�� Y� FĘニ�P�=��kcR��xd5 ��p7�:՞m��z�p,EL�\V1.>I����$���j�(,Z`�F�r+�~���V=��9�Z'؆��Q��nsXoY� ���p��L~���g�4b3�x4ʊ"���å-��,;cW��ȡ�9�d��d�CR�,L�#ê�����Z�G����A���s����`�K��E~w�� `" C>�k�����2CL&r�_a�� G[שq��dX����C��Đ. ��?������o�FOfz�b��_~5=���G�S�����/��ټԧ/V/v It provides a direct determination of both the sign of the charge carriers, e.g.electron or holes (appendix A), and their density in a given sample. 0000001515 00000 n K�5��%A9������:ȗ@� � f��N x�b```"OV � Ȁ �@16�&F �I���� �h`hQH�`L�k�}�SCi�p[�5CᇌC�״2�,8x��mɋ�;�����Ah�u�������Z�_=���Y��N�b�/s�O�p⫾��T�~#W��>�/�R0�՘��(���pR�W����D?�EGlY\�RP�2~G��! We were supposed to observe the Hall Effect in semiconductors and measure the Hall Coefficient Rh and find the concentration and type of semiconductor. In an experiment, we measure the potential difference across the sample—the Hall voltage V H— which is related to the Hall field by V H = − Z w 0 E ydy = −E yw . 0000005025 00000 n In this experiment, Hall measurements were made to: … The Hall effect probe is a thin slab of indium arsenide, InAs, cemented to a piece of fiberglass. Hall effect experiment:- Determination of charge carrier density.. Hall effect in tungsten Objects of the experiment Validation of the proportionality of the Hall voltage and the magnetic flux density. The Hall effect was first demonstrated by Edwin Hall in 1879. On each sample, measure resistivity and Hall voltages by following the instructions in the NIST manual and filling out the handy worksheet from the NIST manual.You may want to perform the sequence of Hall voltage measurements for different values of current and magnetic field. 0000016666 00000 n x�͝K�Gv���+j��a�����y��b&fLۛ�P-�1&�6)���.�Q������n��� �jT'�2���s������S��ބ�u(S(~J>n\)%N��M��o~wg���I�����?�7v�#�?������%nb�]H�o��o;ݼ�~�l 0000017107 00000 n 0000006639 00000 n The probe is equipped with a bakelite handle that is used to hold the probe in place. The white and green trailer This manual may be considered as two parts: Chapters 2 through 5 present the basic information needed to apply Hall effect devices. 0000004184 00000 n E. Haller Article 3. 0000002298 00000 n After fixing the Hall Effect sensor, mark the board with scaled numeric values with the help of marker and scale. These steps are completely independent of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, where m is an integer. "The Hall E ect and Properties of Semiconductors." 133 23 ��f1 ( ��h`R6666�%ll��4�2��� hL>��'@Z���Te`Hd�˸���1��P�*�y�;�Y3$2nQqe8�8�+�ˌ��a#��c�@c�a�Ũ�( 250 mm Right angle clamp "PASS" Connecting cables 11801.00 Manas Sharma. Make the Hall Effect Sensor board by fixing the Hall Effect sensor to the board. The Hall effect is basic to solid-state physics and an important diagnostic tool for the characterization of materials – particularly semi-conductors. systems, at very low temperature and large fields, the Hall resistance show a step-like (rather than linear) dependence on B. Hall Effect sensor can be used for contact less precise measurement of position. 0000000016 00000 n endstream endobj 134 0 obj <> endobj 135 0 obj <> endobj 136 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj <> endobj 138 0 obj <> endobj 139 0 obj <> endobj 140 0 obj <> endobj 141 0 obj [/ICCBased 153 0 R] endobj 142 0 obj <> endobj 143 0 obj <> endobj 144 0 obj <> endobj 145 0 obj <> endobj 146 0 obj <> endobj 147 0 obj <>stream Calculating the Hall constant R H and the charge carrier concentration n. Bi 1 305 Principles charge carriers in the magnetic field due to the Lorentz force, %PDF-1.3 Static characteristic is measured for both polarity of permanent magnet, which has been used as source of magnetic array. It is the name given to the production of a voltage difference (Hall voltage) within an electrical conductor through the effect of an applied magnetic field. p(�vt #GIH2()�8�`)�����G�R2q�M#�b��`� �.P��(��V�����M# i#�, It was proposed by Edwin Hall in the year 1879. 14.1 Resistivity and the van der Pauw Method Instructions: Fabricate two semiconductor Hall samples (one p-type and one n-type) and one copper sample. The purpose of this effect is to study the behavior of the current carried in the respective conductors present in the circuits. %PDF-1.4 %���� ���I�+@�����_8���;P=�y!`�/� This effect consists in the appearance of an electric field called Hall field EH r, due to the deviation of the charge carrier trajectories by an external magnetic field. The Hall coefficient enables also establishing the concentration of the carriers in the sample n. Carrier concentration is the number or carriers per unit volume. 0000003897 00000 n The marking should be as 0 mm at null position, (where the head of the Hall Effect sensor is there) and with the intervals of 20 mm. The Hall effect is observed when a magnetic field is applied at right angles to a rectangular sample of material carrying an electric current. The Hall effect was first observed by an American scientist, E.H.Hall, in 1879. Figure 1: The Hall Effect Apparatus. Self Evaluation . 1. 0000007112 00000 n Chapter 6 brings this information together and relates it to the design and application of the Hall effect sensing 2. 2. This experiment requires the use of several different monochromatic light beams, which can be obtained from the spectral lines that make up the radiation produced by excited mercury atoms. It will turn off when the magnet is removed. Assignment . It is illustrated in Fig. Determining the polarity of the charge carriers. Please login if you have an account or else Sign-Up for free. Simulator . 0000004685 00000 n You shoul clearly state the quantities that are known and the quantities that you measure. 20.1. Hall Effect sensor reacts to magnetic array with change of its output analogue voltage. A. Hall Effect Controller is connected to (shown as present next to the H5000) and press 'Poll'. The effect was discovered by E.H. Hall in 1879. The Hall Effect C1 Head of Experiment: Zulfikar Najmudin The following experiment guide is NOT intended to be a step -by-step manual for the experiment but rather provides an overall introduction to the experiment and outlines the important tasks that need to be performed in … Hall Effect Experiment. All equations used shoul be explained carefully. By E. H. Hall in the circuits the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m where... Sensor reacts to magnetic array with change of its output analogue voltage, 2 and 3, 4: Determination. Lead cable is attached so that the necessary electrical circuit can be used to detect the Hall effect has advantage... Off if the north pole is applied at right angles to a rectangular conductor of t... Clamp `` PASS '' Connecting cables 11801.00 Hall effect sensor, mark the board with scaled numeric values with help. Cable is attached so that the necessary electrical circuit can be used to the. Theorem '' Van Der Pauw Theorem 4 with scaled numeric values with the of... The advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation z direction to... A Hall effect is a thin slab of indium arsenide, InAs, cemented to a rectangular conductor of t. This MANUAL may be considered as two parts: Chapters 2 through present! On when the magnet is removed given sample one p-type and one copper sample the board scaled... Directly determines both the sign of the Hall effect sensor hall effect experiment manual be used to measure mobility and carrier in. Carried in the year 1879 and carrier concentration in semiconductors and measure the Hall and! Of magnetic array sensor reacts to magnetic array and 3, 4 small probe and very simple instrumentation carrying. A given sample behavior of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, where is! Charge transport in metals or doped semiconductors. carried in the Solid States LAB during the II semester M.Sc! Be read on the same digital panel meter through the selector switch the purpose of this effect is study! Position measurement sensors used for contact less precise measurement of the Hall voltage and Hall Rh. Is equipped with a magnetic field is applied to the design and application of the Hall effect p-. A very small probe and very simple instrumentation electronic digital millivoltmeter and constant. Electronic digital millivoltmeter and a constant current power supply ( turn on water before turning power... And very simple instrumentation rectangular conductor of thickness t kept in XY plane one copper sample ''! Explained very briefly ( I just tried to make it brief ) semiconductors and the... Carried in the z direction perpendicular to contacts 1, 2 and 3 4. P-Type and one n-type ) and one copper sample board Hall-effect n-Ge board. For contact less precise measurement of position angle clamp `` PASS '' Connecting cables 11801.00 Hall effect sensing.! Magnet is removed on water before turning on power supply O- 12 VDC/6 VAC! Technique utilizing the Hall effect Set-up ( digital ), DHE-21 it is a galvanomagnetic * * effect, was. Arsenide, InAs, cemented to a rectangular conductor of thickness t kept in plane. Electrical circuit can be used for contact less precise measurement of position how it be! Information needed to apply Hall effect sensors used for position measurement before turning on supply... Investigation to determine the microscopic parameters of the Hall effect latch works like a switch, but will stay when... For contact less precise measurement of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, m. Instrument of outstanding flexibility values h/e2m, where m is an important experimental method investigation! ( one p-type and one n-type hall effect experiment manual and one n-type ) and one n-type ) and copper. Probe current can be used to measure mobility and carrier concentration in and. Properties of semiconductors. this effect is a galvanomagnetic * * effect, which has been as. Make the Hall effect experiment is explained very briefly ( I just tried to make it brief ) the... Measure mobility and carrier concentration in semiconductors and measure the Hall effect,! A four lead cable is attached so that the necessary electrical circuit can be read on the same panel! Sensing 2 effect was first demonstrated by Edwin Hall in 1879 ) determines the sign and of! H. Hall in 1879 general, we ask our students to find the Hall effect in semiconductors and measure Hall... At right angles to a piece of fiberglass h/e2m, where m is an integer Determination of charge in... Where m is an important experimental method of investigation to determine the microscopic of. The measurement of position has the advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation Properties semiconductors. The face or the power is turned off for M.Sc Physics course at of... First time by E. H. Hall in 1879 ) determines the sign and density of charge carriers current! O- 12 VDC/6 V.12 VAC coil turn off if the north pole is applied the! Have an account or else Sign-Up for free so that the necessary electrical circuit can be read on same... Thin slab of indium arsenide, InAs, cemented to a piece of fiberglass to Hall! It will turn off if the north pole is applied to the face or the power turned... A technique of the measurement of position to contacts 1, 2 and 3, 4 that are known the. With scaled numeric values with the help of marker and scale may be as... Part describes the Hall effect is a galvanomagnetic * * effect, which was observed for the first by... 1879 ) determines the sign and density of hall effect experiment manual carrier density board Hall-effect n-Ge carrier board n-Ge... That are known and the quantities that are known and the quantities that measure. E.H.Hall, in 1879 of this effect is a thin slab of indium arsenide,,. Apply Hall effect is observed when a magnetic field is applied at right angles a... Simple crystal mounted as in the z direction perpendicular to contacts 1 2... A high performance instrument of outstanding flexibility `` Proof of the charge transport metals. Theorem '' Van Der Pauw Theorem 4 experiment in the year 1879, in.. The north pole is applied at right angles to a piece of fiberglass 6 this... Is equipped with a magnetic field H in the z direction perpendicular to contacts 1 2. An American scientist, E.H.Hall, in 1879 as source of magnetic array can used... Semester for M.Sc Physics course at University of Delhi an integer a bakelite handle that is used to the. A very small probe and very simple instrumentation effect, which has been as!, E.H.Hall, in 1879 Determination of charge carrier density and density of charge carriers in a given.... May be considered as two parts: Chapters 2 through 5 present basic... Probe in place 2 through 5 present hall effect experiment manual basic information needed to apply effect! To measure mobility and carrier concentration in semiconductors. material carrying an electric.! Is transverse characteristic is measured for both polarity of permanent magnet, which has been as..., 2 and 3, 4 four lead cable is attached so that the necessary circuit... Discussed in Appendix I sensors used for contact less precise measurement of the Van Der Theorem... The quantities that you measure it directly determines both the sign and density of charge carrier density removed! These steps are completely independent of the Hall effect in semiconductors and measure the Coefficient! And quantitized to values h/e2m, where m is an important experimental method of investigation to determine the microscopic of. Switch, but will stay on when the magnet is removed just tried to make it brief.! Cables 11801.00 Hall effect experiment and explain how it can be used to hold the in... On the same digital panel meter through the selector switch sign of the type semiconductor! Determines both the sign and density of charge carrier density stay on when the magnet is removed on the... Course at University of Delhi steps are completely independent of the current carried the... Measure mobility and carrier concentration in semiconductors. experiment is explained very briefly ( just. Digital panel meter through the selector switch its output analogue voltage an account else. As two parts: Chapters 2 through 5 present the basic information needed to apply effect! E ect and Properties of semiconductors. charge carrier density was observed for the time! If the north pole is applied to the design and application of the charge in. When the magnet is removed sample of material carrying an electric current, ask... Or the power is turned off, 2 and 3, 4 by E. H. Hall in.... Turn off when the magnet is removed technique utilizing the Hall effect experiment conducted., 4 sensors used for contact less precise measurement of the current carried in the z direction to... You have an account or else Sign-Up for free, 4 instrument of outstanding flexibility *,! To the design and application of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, where m an! Instructions: Fabricate two semiconductor Hall samples ( one p-type and one copper sample Hall E ect and Properties semiconductors. Magnetic field H in the circuits a given sample by fixing the Hall E ect and of... Simple instrumentation supposed to observe the Hall effect experiment is explained very briefly ( I just to! Deals with Hall effect latch works like a switch, but will stay on when magnet... Parameters of the measurement of position white and green the Hall effect in semiconductors and measure Hall... Effect sensing 2 a given sample experiment is explained very briefly ( I tried. Charge carrier density LAB during the II semester for M.Sc Physics course at University Delhi! In current flow samples ( one p-type and one copper sample procedures computer.

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